By Hillary Kissing, Tanvi Ramtohul, Géraldine Saintas, Roxanne Février and Melina Fauvrelle-Sohun
- Live streaming refers to the process of how the online streaming media is recorded concurrently and broadcast in actual time of the event to allow to the viewer to see it using their media devices such as laptop, mobile phones, tablets and television.
- The process alone has the power to distribute the same video on a global scale to reach the target viewers which can count in terms of millions or even billions.
Live streaming (alongside social media) and political campaigns
With the rise of live streaming video, this means that people have started watching the news happen as it occurs. On the one hand, political campaigns now have a whole new means of information distribution to worry about. On the other, social media, and live streaming in particular, is the most easily controlled way of getting your message to the public in history.
With modern technology, including social media (for instance, Facebook), it is now possible to attend virtual events where you can participate in live streaming events and interact with politicians and candidates.
While reporters and campaigns rush to adopt live streaming apps to broadcast directly from the campaign trail using their phones and other devices, groups that specialize in political tracking and dirt-digging are investing in the technology to share video footage they can use to degrade the opposition. When you are the first source of information — whether it is feeding clips to the press or posting on social media — you have the best chance of framing that news to fit your interests
Facebook Live Stats
- The Facebook Live video view count climbed to 2 billion viewers last year.
- In 2017, 1 out of every 5 Facebook videos was a live broadcast.
- In 2018, the number of Facebook Live broadcasts reached 3.5 billion.
- The daily watch time for Facebook Live broadcasts quadrupled in a single year.
- Facebook Live videos produce 6 times as many interactions as traditional videos.
- Facebook Live videos get 10 times more comments than regular videos.
- Facebook Live’s search popularity increased by 330% in just one year
- Facebook Live users watch FB Live videos 3 times longer than pre-uploaded videos
We’ve come to the very end of our hand-picked Facebook Live stats. Some of the most important stats to keep in mind include, first of all, the rapid growth of FB Live broadcasts, which climbed to 3.5 billion last year. Secondly, the new video format from Facebook is used in various forms ranging from Q&A interviews to how-to content. Lastly, live video isn’t going anywhere, and the future of social media will most likely be all about video content, both pre-recorded and live.
When Live-Streaming bumps up against Freedom of Speech and Censorship
With the mushrooming of internet users, high broadband connections and affordable technological devices, people from all around the world are being exposed to a pool of free information, messages and other contents. “Nowadays we are living in a world that has become radically interconnected, interdependent and communicated in the formations and flows of the media.” (Stuart Allan). The process of reading and sharing is becoming common, and so is freedom of expression. Due to this, online users can express their opinions or views about topics or internet content that interest them.
Similarly, millions of users are playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing, and disseminating news and information. This practice is known as citizen journalism. The growing trend in citizen journalism, also known as public journalism, participatory journalism, democratic journalism, guerrilla journalism or street journalism, journalism by ordinary people on the street, is adding a new dimension to the way local, national and international news is presented.
Different schools regarding citizen journalism
One of the main questionable area of this phenomenon is whether this ‘new journalism’ will take over traditional journalism. Journalism, as every other profession, has set(s) of rules, regulations, laws and important basic ethical procedures to be respected. These practices are often neglected in citizen journalism. Some of the main critics are:
- Objectivity – are citizen journalists providing objective news, that is content which is free from their personal beliefs and views?
- Quality – are the news contents shared by citizen journalist well researched, written or expressed, and shared?
- Accuracy – are the news content accurate, reliable and valid?
- Truthfulness – are the news content free from the ideologies of ‘fake news’?
While some might believe that social media is replacing journalism and subsequently killing off professional and traditional journalism, others (including me) believe that citizen journalism can and does support professional journalism, not kill it. Professional journalist get their sources and information from most of citizen journalist and are actually an advantage to their profession.
TikTok, a Chinese iOS and Android social media video app for creating and sharing short lip-sync, comedy, and talent videos, was launched in 2017 by Chinese developer ByteDance. On 23 January 2018, the TikTok app ranked number one among free mobile app downloads on app stores in Thailand and other countries. TikTok employs artificial intelligence to analyse users’ interests and preferences through their interactions with the content, and display a personalized content feed to each user. In Mauritius, TikTok has been identified by the National Computer Board (NCB) Computer Emergency Response Team Mauritius (CERTMU) recently. The recent boom of this application has made the headline of local newspapers in 2019. On social media, several videos are circulated, outside the Tiktok application, which questions the privacy of this application. The Security Alert, released on September 23, pointed out that cyberbullying cases are rising in Mauritius.
Indeed, this application is an open platform for users to efficiently express their talent and encourage the entertainment and leisure time, however the dark sides of it remains an alarming concern. Hence, it is advised to make a positive use of this and users should be careful of what they are creating and/or sharing as their videos are not 100% protected.
Streaming videos vs Television
- Streaming videos are becoming more and more popular.
- You Tube, Netflix and online podcasts are examples of streaming media.
- Streaming videos has started during the mid-2000s. You Tube was the first platform (launched in 2005) to allow video sharing, a few years later Amazon was the first one to introduce streaming in 2006 and not Netflix as a lot of person seem to believe.
- There seems to be a war going on between streaming videos and cable television.
- Television still occupy the first place although streaming videos is getting more and more popularity through the years. the latest survey conducted by Nielsen’s published the 08/05/2019 affirmed that ‘As of May 2019, 134.2 million (56%) of U.S. adults streamed non-linear video (new media/streaming video) to their TV set through an internet-connected device or smart television. Compared with just two years ago, 40 million more Americans are streaming content to their TV sets.
- The most popular streaming platfoms includes Netflix, Freeform, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu.
- Streaming tv can be considered as a cultural phenomenon as it is transforming the society culturally, individuals no longer watch or consume content the same way compared to ten years back. Streaming videos are borderless.
- Streaming videos have also changed the family that is long ago watch TV was considered as some bonding time although the concept has remained the same that is to entertain but with streaming videos family has become fragmented, instead of gathering to watch the Tv, each watches their favorite shows on one of the many devices. Streaming videos are ecological as well, according to research, streaming a movie requires 78% of the energy it takes to ship a physical copy.
- Another aspect of streaming media and how it is changing our society is on the political level, streaming videos has somehow democratized the political scene, for instance the launching of the Parliament TV in Mauritius has allowed Mauritians to watch the political debate going on each week without no interruptions or editing, this somehow contributes to what is called participatory democracy.
- During the political campaign of this year the media website ‘Défimedia’ broke his audience records during this last month. (https://www.defimedia.info/defimediainfo-bat-son-record-daudience).
- Streaming videos are replacing fundraising tv shows. Monday 23th September 2019, a live streaming game created by a company known as ‘ZeratoR’ has collected 3.5 euros for a charity. Video link: (https://techno.konbini.com/fr/gaming/z-event-ledition-2019-entre-dans-lhistoire-en-recoltant-35-millions-deuros/)
- Another app known as Games Done Quickly (GDQ) organizes online event to raised fund for charities.
- In an article published by the magazine Forbes, it has been argued that telethon barely exists and is disappearing from the media stage and are being replaced by live streaming videos and gaming to raise funds for charity.
Differences between local channels/satellite channels and online streaming
The data below is according to statistics Mauritius:
The number of mobile cellular phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants increased from 145.4 to 151.6.The number of internet subscriptions per 100 inhabitants went from 98.7 to 107.1.
Internet Usage in Mauritius
In 2018, International Bandwidth usage increased to 151.0 Gbits/s from 96.3 Gbits/s in 2017.
The usage per inhabitant reached 119,318 bits per second from 76,124 in 2017,
According to ITU, Mauritius ranked first among African countries and 72nd out 176 countries worldwide in terms of ICT development in 2016.
This let us suggest that the number of people having access to streaming videos is increasing. Data is mostly consumed nowadays. All improvement sin Mauritius has led our country to consume content on platforms like Facebook, web, YouTube etc.
However, it can be seen that elders tend to be the majority to consume data on TV, whether being local or international channels. When asking them why they do so, they simply argue that they have difficulties when surfing on the Web to look for content to watch. Many are not computer literate. They don’t understand how streaming works. Some gave as reasons that they have always watch content from TV and don’t want to change their habits. They are already used to TV and enjoy watching their soap operas at a specific time.
Was launched in late 2013
It operates via FTTH and offers various packages
There are 50 basic My.T channels which are offered (with options to be upgraded to about 95 channels)
It is the leader in the digital pay market in Mauritius. There are no statistics available but however it has been seen from the net and personal interviews that out of 10 people 7 were Canal+ users.
It is a governmental television
Its programs are broadcasted in 12 languages (which is convenient to people speaking different languages). Out of 10 people, 3 people were watching MBC.
Mauritius – Households with television
Mauritius – Fixed broadband Internet subscribers
Mauritius – Mobile cellular subscriptions
Mauritius – Mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers
The Netflix phenomenon
Doing some research, I came across a blog called “Noulakaz”. Where according to the unofficial Netflix online Global search, Mauritius is ranked 136th world wide with a percentage of 15.3% (approx.) of users.
What encourages people to use Netflix is the cost which is very low – about Rs360 per month and also its fluidity.
However, all contents are not available in Mauritius that is why the fees are not so expensive.
Some people enjoy the programs/films/series/documentary available on Netflix as they will never see these on local channels in Mauritius. Even when watching channels like Canal+ you will find yourself watching the same thing over and over again because of this system of diffusing it several times over a period of one month.
We can say that the statistics in Mauritius is balanced, we see that majority of elderly people prefers watching old traditional media whereas youngsters prefer consuming data from live streaming videos like on local radios (private and public). News is broadcast and they have access to it more easily. Even for watching movies they prefer watching movies on the net. Many issues have been reported on local channels so they prefer investing in apps like Netflix or even freely on the net than to pay for watching the same things over and over again. Elders prefers to stick to it as some are less use to it.
Images source: World Bank