Les articles de nos étudiants autour du festival Île Courts 2017

Voici les articles et vidéos produits par les étudiants de Journalisme et Communication qui ont été publiés par le magazine culturel Kozé dans le cadre de l’atelier Blog Me If You Can et du festival Île Courts 2017:

Son, lumière, caméra et… Coupez ! Par Davina Soopramanien, Tessa Marguerite et Daniella Jolicœur.

Look dan boîte : scénario en trois mots Par Thibault François, Eva Didier, Divya Nadhoo et Kristy Tuyau.

Coup de foudre pour « Fim Zekler » Par Mehryne Annooar, Dooshani Seewoolall, Nivesha Chetamun et Agnes Esther.


Winter and its effect on the work of beach hawkers

When one goes to the beach, it is inescapable to think about the delicious fruit salads or as we call it “ ene bon ti salad fruits” and about the ice-cream from the colorful vans.

Many Mauritians have opened up snacks near the beach where tourists and locals alike come to enjoy the delicacies on offer. Since amendments to the law concerning hawkers were made in 2011, the Ministry of Tourism has been regulating the business of the beach hawkers. They are all gathered around one spot, usually near the parking lot to sell their products. It is the customers who need to go to them for any purchases. Moreover, the hawkers need to have an official permit in order to work. Because of this new rule, the number of hawkers has decreased and those who have a permit now also have trouble selling their products. During the winter season especially, i.e. from June to September, the volume trade of these hawkers decreases drastically.


For some of them, this is the only way they can earn a living.  And so, many hawkers still come to work even during the cold season. As a result, making ends meet becomes a real struggle. Others acknowledge that winter is not likely to be the most fruitful season, but they are still grateful that they get to earn some money to be able to survive. [ Find more in the video below]

Zainah Peerally


Mangroves in Mauritius: Misguided Efforts and Lacklustre Results

Mangroves are well-known for their environmental benefits and yet it seems as though efforts to propagate them have known little success. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) many small islands like Mauritius and their environments face great survival risks. With global warming getting progressively worse by the year, the effects of climate change have become an issue we can no longer ignore. The time now, as scientists and Mauritian authorities alike have stressed, is to make the protection of our environment a priority.

Mangroves are, according to the NASA, “among the most biologically important ecosystems on the planet”. On top of preventing soil erosion, the Journal of Coastal Development affirm that these also provide natural habitats, feeding-places and nurseries for marine species. They filter water and allow fish, especially juveniles, to thrive. Efforts to protect mangroves have been made. The launch of the Mangroves Protection Programme, and legislation like the Fisheries and Marine Resources Act of 1998 which protect mangroves are proof of goodwill.

And yet, we cannot really boast about great results. One of the causes of this is inadequate planting of mangroves. Mangroves thrive in murky waters; they are wetland plants. And while mangrove forests have been re-planted near the shore in areas like Case Noyale, other mangrove forests (or simply forests) in Grand Sable for instance have been planted in dry soil. According to marine scientist Mark Spalding from the University of Siena, this phenomenon which occurs around the world is a result of legal constraints. Oftentimes, especially in Mauritius, beaches are owned by private individuals and their property extend to the beach and even the shoreline. Authorities then have to fall back on whatever state-owned land is available. Yet, in the case of Grand Sable, it was a small association of local people who took on this endeavour.


Mangroves at Grand Sable. Photo Credits: Stories UNDP

The local association could not be contacted but Mark Spalding points out that in general, what happens is that people plant the wrong kind of mangrove in the wrong place and so the plants do not attain maturity, even if they grow to be saplings.

But when such simple mistakes are made, it does not help at all that the support for mangroves is not unilateral. “The mangroves are not always pretty to look at.” said one inhabitant, “Case Noyale is a touristic spot. When the tourist comes here, he wants to see the horizon with his family, but the mangroves are big trees, and it prevents them from enjoying the vista.”

Another inhabitant, Joseph, complained that during floods especially, a lot of waste got accumulated in the roots of the mangroves. The result was a dirty, littered shore which according to Joseph, could prevent tourists from visiting the region which is highly dependent on this particular sector of the economy.

Villagers from Case Noyale are not against mangroves for the sake of being against mangroves. They recognise the benefits offered by these, especially for the fishing industry since Case Noyale is also a fishing village. But faced with the short-term problems that affect their everyday life, a vocal few are starting to speak out about the issues they face. With the case for mangroves being already fragilised by at times misguided government efforts, NGOs are struggling to keep mangroves alive. The ADD (Association pour le Development Durable) reports having planted 100,000 mangrove trees over 10 hectares of coastal land. But their actions cannot lead to the expected results when people are still ill-educated about the importance of mangroves.

Mangrove seeds (known as propagules)

Mangrove seeds (known as propagules) to be planted

Even so, Mauritius cannot be said to be faring horribly. The authorities have already recognised the need for and the importance of mangroves. Misguided efforts can be corrected and awareness and afforestation programmes are in the works. Just last week, on Sunday the 21st of May, the Plaine Verte Youth Centre in collaboration with the Roches Noires Youth Centre set up an expedition for the youth where a message of awareness was spread. A project to replant mangroves was also scheduled but due to unfavourable weather conditions, it could not be carried out.

Aadilah Soobratty

PUBLIC BEACH: Only around 88 bins available instead of 466.

The public is a major concern of the Ministry of Environment. Around only 88 bins are available  on public beaches which are not sufficient for the number of people who come. Is it the lack of bins which force people to throw their garbages anywhere or everywhere ? Is it the distance between bins? Are the bins too small ? Is it obvious to have more garbages on the beach after a festival ? Is there an attitude problem with people ? Is it because people are not aware of the life cycle of garbages ? Should  people be educated on the impact of throwing garbages at the beach and how this is affecting the environment ? Do garbages affect tourists attraction in Mauritius? Some answers are found in this video below.

The total number of bins required on the public beaches as per a 2015 survey done by the Ministry of Environment is 466. Bins are placed on the public beaches so as to encourage people to avoid littering, which creates an unhealthy and aesthetically unpleasant social environment. The new policy of the Minister of Environment, Sustainable Development, and Disaster and Beach Management is to construct a central bin  on each beach. As a pilot project, a central bin has been constructed at Bain Boeuf public beach. Signage boards have been placed in order to sensitize and guide the beach users to use the central bin to dump their wastes.

The Beach Authority is mandated to carry out sensitization campaign on public beaches for the awareness of the public on the importance to preserve, protect and maintain cleanliness on all the public beaches. The rationale behind the campaign is to curb the disposal of garbage and change the mindset of the people with regard to the proper use of public beaches. Emphasis is also laid on the consequences of the destruction of the eco-system, beach erosion and mitigation impacts of climate change.  People should be educated on the life span of garbages and their consequences. The most seen garbages on public beaches is plastic bags. These plastic bags take over 15 years to decompose which is enormous. The amount of plastic bags thrown every year is continuously destroying the marine parks and exotic aquatic animals. Some fish have become extinct due to excessive garbages thrown at the beach.

Mauritius, being a small island, has limited space to put waste. With modern products and imports, and the growth of industry and tourism, more and more waste is being dumped in the sea. Sewage is mainly pumped out to sea, without treatment, and pollution is increasing with the growth of the population and tourism.
This can eventually destroy the coral reefs which play an important role in calming the energy of the waves, providing vital protection to the shores. Coral reefs are a major contributory factor to the beautiful beaches which attract many tourists to the island.

                                                       Source : Zero Waste Movement


The Beach Authority plays a key role in maintaining clean public beaches in the Republic of Mauritius. The cleaning and maintenance exercises are contracted out over to Maxiclean Ltd, Securiclean Ltd, Compagnie Regionale De Service et de L’Environnement Commercial Complex, Keep Clean Ltd, Mauriclean Ltd and Atics Ltd. The Beach Enforcement Officers of t    he Beach Authority ensure that the contractors comply with the terms and conditions of their contracts.


                           Source : Clean up campaigns in Mauritius

On the 15th May 2017, the government launched a Clean up Mauritius and Embellishment campaign at Sugar Beach Golf and Spa Resort. The minister Anil Gayan made an appeal out in his speech that everyone should have the responsibility to keep the country clean and this should start from the youngest member in the family.

 Author: Jaya Bhujun

Aquaculture Products: an economic pillar yet a slow killer

Statistics from the Ministry of Ocean Economy, Marine Resources, Fisheries and Shipping prove that aquaculture production in Mauritius is increasing annually.  However, many consumers are unaware about the health dangers that can be caused by the consumption of aquaculture products.

Source: FAO

According to the National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration (NOAA) Fisheries of the U.S, aquaculture refers “to the breeding, rearing and harvesting of plants and animals in all types of water environments including ponds, rivers, lakes and the ocean.” The aim of growing hatchery fish and shellfish in ponds, tanks, cages and raceways is to produce seafood. Two types of aquaculture have been identified:

(1) Marine aquaculture, which refers to the breeding of species that live in the ocean. (2)Freshwater aquaculture, which refers to the production of species which dwell in lakes, rivers and streams.

The British aquaculture author, C. F. Hickling explains that aquaculture began in the period 2000-1000 BC in China. Hence, aquaculture dates as far as 4000 years ago.  Till the end of 17th century, aquaculture production was confined only to China. In the first half of the 18th century, along with Chinese migration to French Indochinese countries, the practice of aquaculture started spreading out of China around the world. The sub-continent of India, Indonesia, Europe, North America and Africa started the aquaculture production.

Established in June 1982, the Albion Fisheries Research Centre published a document in 2010, which explains the goal of introducing aquaculture in Mauritius. The aim is to promote sustainable aquaculture development through the production and supply of fish seeds to farmers and for marine ranching. The above mentioned centre reports that the following species have been chosen for farming and for exportation: Freshwater Prawn, Berri Rouge, Gold Fish, Platy, Sailfin Molly, Cordonnier, Seabream and Oyster. 

Source: Board of Investment

Aquaculture boosting up the economic pillar


Aquaculture production in Mauritius has led to the creation of employment in the recent years.The figure below from the Albion Fisheries Research Centre shows the number of employed people in aquaculture production.

The Director of Jessan Seafood Ltd, Jessan Persand started the aquaculture of oyster since 2 years now. He explains that a number of scientific tests are carried out to improve the quality of the oysters in order to meet the expectations of both Mauritians and tourists. He also explains  why he started this business.

  Annual fish production in Mauritius

Every year the production of fish is going up. The figure from the ministry below shows the increase (in tonnes) in the number of production throughout the years and the number of production made from aquaculture.

Fish consumption in Mauritius

As observed above, there has been a rise in the aquaculture of fish throughout the years. Fish is one of the seafood consumed by most Mauritians. In 2013, the FAO carried a Fish Consumption survey in Mauritius. The outcome of the survey showed 23.1 kg/year of fresh and frozen fish are consumed per capita and 16.8 kg/year of other fishery products are consumed per capita. Therefore, excluding non-consumers and vegetarians, Mauritians consume some 40 kg of fish and fishery products annually. As shown in the diagram below, 88% of respondents preferred local fish rather than imported ones. The 12 % who preferred imported fish state that imported fish have better quality.

Statistics from the Fish Consumption survey in Mauritius

Are we aware which quality of fish we are consuming?

Whether it is imported or local fish, we have no idea about the way the fish has been produced or about the environment in which the fish is grown. Research has proved that farmed fish can cause harm to the health of consumers. As a result, consumers of farmed fish can be victims of chronic diseases.

According to the Center for Food Safety of US, aquaculture practices endanger human health. Antibiotics are used to control disease in the cage of the sea creatures. When consumers eat these products that have been treated with antibiotics they may be ingesting noxious level of antibiotics residues.  Moreover, fungicide is used to prevent the growth of fungus on fish eggs. Above all, it is estimated that 95 % of Atlantic salmon is farmed and they are dyed pink to make them more appetizing. Recent articles have proved that there is a possibility of retinal damage in children due to artificial food coloring. This Center also claims that farmed fish contain lower levels of protein and higher levels of fat. Thus, seafood does not always provide the health benefits consumers think it does. In their study ” Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in animal wastewater and surface water around farms in Jiangsu Province, China”,  Wei et al. (2011) found that Tetracycline is one of the antibiotics used in China for aquaculture production. While in his study “Veterinary antibiotics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment” Kemper (2008) found that Quinolones are fully synthetic antibiotics used in fish farming. 

Dr. Ramdhany Anjiv, a medical doctor in Mauritius explains the side effects of Tetracycline and Quinolones on the health of human beings when these antibiotics are consumed regularly through animal products.

According to Food and Agriculture Organization, fish contains a rich source of vitamins and minerals, such as B12, vitamin D, Iodine and Zinc which are valuable for the healthy growth of children. At the same time, fish is also rich in omega-3 fatty acid, which is vital for brain and eyes development. The FAO also claims that eating one serving fish per week reduces the risk of health attacks and strokes. However, as mentioned below, do fish produced through aquaculture with a number of antibiotics provide the same nutritional value as wild fish? Jillian Fry, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future’s Public Health and Sustainable Aquaculture Project reveals that fish obtain their fatty acids by eating algae in the water. Bigger fish acquire more omega-3 when they eat small fish. However, fish in tanks are given soybeans, corns or wheat-based foods which interrupt the food chain of fish. In this way, there is nutritional deficit of fish and consumers do not obtain the same nutritional value from farmed fish than from wild fish. 

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization

A number of fish have a lack of Omega-3 as they are not able to feed on smaller fish. To counter this problem, fish are given Fishmeal and Fish oil to consume. Fishmeal is a common source of protein in aquaculture feeds. Fishmeal are made of animal byproducts such as poultry by product meal while, Fish oil is used as fat source. Shepherd and Jackson (2013) in their study “Global fishmeal and fish oil supply-inputs, outputs and markets” state that the important components of Fishmeal and Fish oil are wild-caught forage fish. That is smaller fish are caught to feed faming fish. In their journal “China’s aquaculture and the world’s wild fisheries” Cao et al (2015) reveals that the “use of forage fish and low-value “trash” fish to feed growing aquaculture industry raises concern of overfishing, disruption to aquatic food webs, food industry and a potential net loss of seafood available for human consumption.” The World Aquaculture Society (2009) confirms that “The proportion of fishmeal supplies used for fish production have increased from 10% in 1988 to more than 30% in the last years, which classifies aquaculture as a potential promoter of the collapse of fisheries stocks worldwide.”

Source: research.rabobank.com

In his study on “Aquafeeds and the environment”, J. Lopez Alvarado (1997) claims that fish farming produce an amount of wastes that are loaded to the environment. After consuming a number of antibiotics, the farming fishes excrete some of the nutrients through the grills and undoubtedly, the excretion will affect all the sea creatures near the farming nets. As a result, the wild creatures in the surrounding will be contaminated. The figure below shows how the solid wastes are released and cause negative impact on the environment as well as the health of human beings. The study explains “To produce 1 ton of fish, 1800 kg of feed are needed (for a FCR of 1.8). For a 47% protein diet with 1% phosphorus content, this means an input of 18 kg phosphorus and 135.4 kg nitrogen with the diets. Of this, 5 kg of phosphorus and 30 kg nitrogen will be retained by the fish for growth. The rest will be loaded to the. environment, resulting in a total release of 180 kg of solids, 13 kg phosphorus and 105.4 kg nitrogen.”

Source: Aquafeeds and the environment Report

 The above mentioned points show that the processes of aquaculture in other countries are untrustworthy and consumers must be cautious before consuming imported seafood. Aquaculture production is in infancy state in Mauritius and it is not necessary that the same process is used to grow up farmed fish across the island. An officer from the Aquaculture Division of the Albion Fisheries Research Centre explains that she cannot reveal which antibiotics are used in Mauritius as it is “highly confidential“.  However, as consumers are we not allowed to know what antibiotics  we are consuming through aquaculture products?

The officer also clarifies that the fish meal used in Mauritius are bought from two companies, namely, Livestock Feed Ltd and Meaders Feed Ltd.

On one side of the coin, fisheries production, which includes aquaculture production in Mauritius, brings financial revenue for the government and creates various jobs for people across the island.  On the other side of the coin, the method (usage of antibiotics) used to breed the farming fishes in Mauritius can probably be the same as other countries which is undoubtedly causing a detriment to the health of consumers. Therefore, for their own well-being, consumers must inquire where the seafood comes from.

Author: Chaitan Dabee

2021: The Ministry of Education will implement co-education in 12 academies.

« Nine-year schooling » These 3 words have given birth to a number of debates among parliamentarians, secondary educators and parents for more than 2 years since now.

This subject was discussed for the first time by the former Minister of Education, Vasant Bunwaree, in parliament in 2014 before being reintroduced in 2015 by the present Minister of Education, Leela Devi Dookun Lutchmun. After several versions, the nine-year schooling was finally introduced in the beginning of 2017.

However, in November 2015, the minister announced in parliament that co-education in academies will be implemented in 2021. She further stated that without any imposition, other secondary schools can continue as single sex schools.

About nine months later, in July 2016, the Minister shed further light on the introduction of co-education in 2021. She also confirmed that 12 national colleges would be converted into academies. These academies would only have classes from Grade 10 to 13.

The list of academies is as follows:

(1) Dr. Maurice Curé State College

(2) Droopnath Ramphul State College

(3) G.M.D Atchia State College

(4) John Kennedy College

(5) Mahatma Gandhi Institute

(6) Queen Elizabeth College

(7) Royal College Curepipe

(8) Royal College Port Louis

(9) Sookdeo Bissoondoyal State College

(10) Sir Leckraz Teelock SSS

(11) Sir A.R. Osman State School

(12) Forest Side SSS

Source: Inspiring every child- MOE

Hiranand Boolchand Dansinghani, senior adviser at the Ministry of Education provides the rationale for co-education: “We want to change people’s mind-sets to accept co-education. As we all know since primary school, kids are already being taught in mixed environment and private tuitions happen in a mixed environment too. People are growing up in a collaborative manner, to live together. Even societies operate on the basis that people should work together.

He states that “It is obvious that co-education will bring infrastructural changes, and the government is taking care of that. By starting with the basics such as the toilet, home economics labs in boys’ schools and technical departments in girls’ schools. Adjustments will be made in academies to welcome both genders. If a private college wants to become an academy, the grant from PSEA (Ex-PSSA) will provide support to overcome this infrastructural issue.”

The adviser explains the reason behind academies with 2 or 3 areas of expertise: “With time, institutions have carved a reputation in a particular field such as the Royal College of Curepipe is more bent towards economics & accounts and the Royal College of Port-Louis towards science. That’s why we are saying that they are going into a specialization in 2 or 3 domains. But academies will have to give options otherwise it will be an institution devoted to one domain, which is not our intention at all.” Dansinghani claims that “the criterion to enter the academies will be based on the performance where pupils must show competency in non-core subjects also.”

Along with the nine-year schooling, a new management model will be introduced not only in the academies but in other secondary schools “The management model that we want to adopt in academies, is based on the common decision of each stakeholders. The idea is to allow both school staffs and the community to participate in the empowerment of the pupils by increasing the contribution of each stakeholder. Parents who are professional people and intellectuals can contribute by sharing their expertise with the school.”

He believes that the nine-year schooling will bring positive changes in the attitude and performance of boys. “Statistics shows that each year, boys are under-performing. So, co-education is the solution. Co-education will bring healthy competition between boys and girls. Boys will become more cautious about their self image. Consequently, there will be less failure among boys”

Moher Dharamdeo, the rector of D.A.V. College, Port Louis explains how he manages an institution which has always offered co-education throughout its 25 years of existence.

Arvind Bhojun, teacher in a private mixed secondary school is a big supporter of co-education.

Another teacher who preferred to keep anonymous brings to light a number of problems that the Ministry of Education must take into consideration before implementing co-education.

The sociologist Jay Ramsaha from MIE believes that co-education has both positive and negative impacts.

Selvina B. Rajodu, a student from a mixed secondary institution concedes that co-education brings healthy debates and broader perceptions among boys and girls.

Debates will still go on before and after the implementation of co-education in academies in Mauritius. In the meantime, one can only hope that the Ministry of Education will be able to change the mindset of parents towards co-education, will take into consideration the suggestions of teachers before the implementation of co-education and that the positive aspects of the system will outweigh the negative ones. It is to be noted that there are 183 secondary institutions in Mauritius. Within 183 secondary institutions, 79 institutions are mixed secondary schools, 54 institutions are boys secondary schools and 50 are girls secondary schools. As observed, Mauritius has more mixed secondary schools than single sex secondary institutions. Hence, having more secondary schools with the Co Education system will surely be not a problem.

Authors: Chaitan Dabee & Johann Bissessur

What happens to those who leave school early?



The Mauritius map above englobes the whole education system in the Republic of Mauritius in the year 2015. It is divided into zones and categorized in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education.

A study was carried out to analyze three cohorts. One can notice a significant decrease in the number of students over the years.


Total number of pupils examined over the years
Year  Number of pupils Decrease
 NOV 2016    HSC 9 285 pupils   13 891


 NOV 2014     SC 15 632 pupils
 NOV 2009     CPE 23 176 puplis
 NOV 2014 HSC 10 429 pupils  13 235


 NOV 2012 SC 16 967 pupils
 NOV 2008 CPE 23 664 pupils
 NOV 2013 HSC 10 287 pupils 13763                                     pupils
 NOV 2011 SC 17 192 pupils
 NOV 2007 CPE 24 050 pupils

There is a decrease of about 13 000 pupils for every cohort when reaching the HSC level. For each cohort, there is a decrease of about 6000 – 7000 pupils for each main stage (i.e. CPE to SC and SC to HSC). These are not able to finish their HSC despite having taken part in the CPE exams. Why such a drastic decrease? Do they have numerous failures and dropouts? Where do they go if they do not take part in the SC and HSC exams? Do they look for a job or register at the MITD? The year 2015 saw 6 884 youngsters enrolled at the MITD, which is not even a third of the amount of pupils who disappeared from the system after the SC level.

Throughout several years, there has been a constant decrease in the number of SC students who passed their exams. Through the Ministry of Education’s recent statistics, we deduce that among the 15,295 students who participated in the SC exams in 2013, only 11,461 passed and 9,917 participated in the HSC exams in 2015.


Figure 1: Total of students in SC&HSC and numbers who passed the exams

What did the students do if they left school after the SC examinations? Did they start working or join technical schools like MITD?

The MITD is a training center that promotes vocational education, technical and training. Throughout the island, there are now 15 training centers that are open for different courses and training.

For the last three years, more than 10, 000 people have been enrolled in the 15 centers of MITD in the island, according to the statistics found on the Ministry of Education’s website.

graph 2.png

Figure 2 : Enrollment in MITD

However, it is to be noted that the number of admissions in the Mauritius Institute of Training and Development has been declining. In 2013, the institution welcomed 10,463 students while in 2015, only 6,884 students were enrolled for the courses.


Jaya Bhujun & Zainah Peerally