Political Campaigns 2.0

By Lakshana Ramroop, Pooja Sookun, Ashvin Pothano, Ornella Thelva and Shazia Thupsee.

Introduction

A political campaign is a set of political activities that people carry out over a period of time (in order to achieve something such as social or political change) which seeks to influence the decision-making process of people within a specific group.

“In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high-profile political campaigns are focused on candidates for head of state of government, often a President or Prime Minister.”
– Definitions.net

Digital campaigns have become prominent. With the introduction of new media, political campaign strategies of political parties, candidates and political organizations have faced a wave of changes. The new media has been able to reshape election media coverage and influence voter engagement. With the introduction of new media, we have been able to witness 6 types of Ads.

Types Of Ads

Ad type #1 Introduction
These types of ads are expected from the political campaigns right from the beginning of the race. As the name itself suggests, this ad is like an introductory ad where the candidate will describe his or her background qualifications as well as the reasons for running for the elections. The candidate in this ad becomes the main subject.

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Ad type #2 Endorsements
“An endorsement video is the hallmark of any campaign that is trying to identify and belong to a larger party or group of political actors.”

Ad type #3 Positive
In this type of ad, the candidate will be seen addressing an issue in the society or the district. They will be talking about their issue positions or background and it is mainly in front of an environment typical of their district.

Ad type #4 Negative
(Source: Future Mauritius on Facebook)
In this type of ads, negative light is shed on the campaigns of the opposite political parties. The main message of this type of ad is, “Do not vote for X candidate.” these types of ads mainly use red or dark colors to create that negative image.

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Negative Ads

Ad type #5 Citizen Testimonials
(Source: Mopays.com on Facebook)
This type of ad is not like an endorsement ad. In this type of ad, ordinary Mauritians are used to talk in favor of the candidate. This type of ads reaches people better because people are able to associate themselves with the “ordinary Mauritian” talking about struggle stories that the candidate will fight against.

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Citizen Testimonials

Ad type #6 The Future of Campaign Advertising
Everyone has adopted this trend of digitization. Even politicians are making use of Instagram live and Snapchat to carry forward their campaign. This clearly shows that even though television will remain the foundation for any ad campaigns, soon, every type of digital screen will host political appeals.

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Streaming Videos vs TV

By Hillary Kissing, Tanvi Ramtohul, Géraldine Saintas, Roxanne Février and Melina Fauvrelle-Sohun

Influence of live streaming on political campaign

    • Live streaming refers to the process of how the online streaming media is recorded concurrently and broadcast in actual time of the event to allow to the viewer to see it using their media devices such as laptop, mobile phones, tablets and television.
    • The process alone has the power to distribute the same video on a global scale to reach the target viewers which can count in terms of millions or even billions.

Live streaming (alongside social media) and political campaigns
With the rise of live streaming video, this means that people have started watching the news happen as it occurs. On the one hand, political campaigns now have a whole new means of information distribution to worry about. On the other, social media, and live streaming in particular, is the most easily controlled way of getting your message to the public in history.

With modern technology, including social media (for instance, Facebook), it is now possible to attend virtual events where you can participate in live streaming events and interact with politicians and candidates.

While reporters and campaigns rush to adopt live streaming apps to broadcast directly from the campaign trail using their phones and other devices, groups that specialize in political tracking and dirt-digging are investing in the technology to share video footage they can use to degrade the opposition. When you are the first source of information — whether it is feeding clips to the press or posting on social media — you have the best chance of framing that news to fit your interests

Facebook Live Stats

  • The Facebook Live video view count climbed to 2 billion viewers last year.
  • In 2017, 1 out of every 5 Facebook videos was a live broadcast.
  • In 2018, the number of Facebook Live broadcasts reached 3.5 billion.
  • The daily watch time for Facebook Live broadcasts quadrupled in a single year.
  • Facebook Live videos produce 6 times as many interactions as traditional videos.
  • Facebook Live videos get 10 times more comments than regular videos.
  • Facebook Live’s search popularity increased by 330% in just one year
  • Facebook Live users watch FB Live videos 3 times longer than pre-uploaded videos

We’ve come to the very end of our hand-picked Facebook Live stats. Some of the most important stats to keep in mind include, first of all, the rapid growth of FB Live broadcasts, which climbed to 3.5 billion last year. Secondly, the new video format from Facebook is used in various forms ranging from Q&A interviews to how-to content. Lastly, live video isn’t going anywhere, and the future of social media will most likely be all about video content, both pre-recorded and live.

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Use of new media as a means of generating revenue

By Melvin Moonien, Ritesh Subrun, Nidhi Groodoyal, Ganesha Seebaruth and Shamya Lall Mahomed.

International influencers

The phenomenon of earning money online through social media and other platforms has reached the whole world. In each country, we can see people trying to use the psychology of influence to make engaging art and change lives.
This phenomenon does not have any barrier. Even age cannot stop people from being influencers.

Ryan’s World

For example, a 7 year old boy generated $22 million by reviewing toys on his YouTube page.

This young boy has 22.5 million subscribers to his YouTube account. According to Forbes magazine, his YouTube account was the highest grossing among all accounts. He generated $22 million in revenue, double of what he earned the previous year where he was only 8th of highest grossing YouTube accounts.
The account began when Ryan, then a 4-year-old fan of toy-review videos, asked his parents if he could also review toys on YouTube. Ryan ToysReview started out slowly until a July 2015 video went viral. The video featured Ryan opening and reviewing a box containing more than 100 toys from Pixar’s “Cars” series. It has close to 935 million views.

His latest video titled “How to Make DIY Craw Machine from Cardboard!!!” was posted on 10th November 2019 and as of 13.32 on the 12th November 2019, he already had 2,125,121 views. To this day, this young lad has a grand total of 33,656,318,037 views on YouTube.

 This kid is not stopping anytime soon.

Zoella

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Big Data & Privacy Issues

By Zaynab Aumeer,  Saffiyah Goolam Hossen, Jannat Mamode, Pritima Ramroop, and Pamela Ravina.

Investopedia defines big data as “the large, diverse sets of information that grow at ever-increasing rates. It encompasses the volume of information about user’s autobiography and often comes from multiple sources. Big data can also be categorized as structured or unstructured.
Big data is collected from social media platforms and websites, through product purchases, electronic check-ins, locations, interests and questionnaires. Big data has its importance in the marketing area mainly as it has the potential to provide companies with profitable insights into their customers. These further enable marketers to refine marketing campaigns maximize customer engagement and conversion rates.
The realm of big data is a million dollar generating business considering how it is an important tool used in the marketing industry to affect the decision making of people. More often internet users receive an advertisement in mail or online that is quite relevant to their situation or their interest. Today there are over 4,000 data brokering companies worldwide that sell these data to leading companies across the world which explains the relevancy of advertisements to users. Acxiom is one of the largest data brokering companies in the world has over 23,000 servers that collect and analyze data for 500 million consumers worldwide.
Every search is monitored by data brokering companies and the information will be sold to companies so that they can create online ads to catch the attention of the user.
Now data brokering is a 200 million dollar industry.

Issues related to Big Data

Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying takes place over digital devices and can occur through SMS, Text, and apps, or online in social media, forums, or gaming where people can view, participate in, or share content like photos, messages, or pages that don’t get taken down, even the person has been asked to do so. It includes sending, posting, or sharing negative, harmful, false, or mean content about someone else. It can include sharing personal or private information about someone else causing embarrassment or humiliation. Some cyberbullying crosses the line into unlawful or criminal behaviour.
Cyberbullying statistics (2019) worldwide reveal alarming facts about virtual harassment, its impact, and the many different shapes and forms it can take.

Examples of Cyberbullying cases are:

  • Tyler Clementi: A shy 18-year-old university freshman with a passion for playing the violin, jumped to his death from the George University Bridge.
  • Ryan Halligan: He committed suicide on the 7th October 2003 where they found that he was humiliated by peers at school and online

The Mauritian Cybercrime Online Reporting System (MAUCORS) is a national online system that allows the public to report cybercrimes occurring on social media securely. It also provides advices to help recognizing and avoid common types of cybercrimes which takes place on social media websites.
Mauritius amends Information and Communication Technologies Act (ICTA) to include clause to impress heavy sentences for online messages that may be considered aggravating. Here is a screenshot showing a case of bullying which happens in Mauritius; a young man, Atish Ramnaraynan who died because of cyberbullying.

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tEChnOLOGY

By Bhurshita Seechurn, Josue Armance, Bhaveena D. Appadoo, Threeshika Napal and Khausar Hoota.

Less energy use equals to less pressure on energy converting companies to cater for increasing demand equals to less strain on natural resources. This simple equation is the basis of every reason why energy efficiency is a must in the 21st century.

‘Energy efficiency is a notion focusing on technology and enhanced productivity’ (Moezzi, 2000). Common practices range from simply changing halogen lighting to LED lighting to using electric vehicles for transportation. Energy efficiency is a phenomenon which cuts across various aspects, namely transportation, building design and more importantly, technology. However, with the emergence of high performance technologies comes the responsibility to be energy efficient.
The report looks at how technology, in its various forms, helps/could help in reducing the consumption of energy across the following sectors:

  • Household sector
  • Agricultural sector
  • Transport sector

We also make a detour to analyse the concept of a paperless society and its impact on energy consumption in the long run.

Household sector
The Household sector is one where there is high consumption of energy. Indeed, with more and more people leaning towards household appliances such as dishwashers, refrigerators, air conditioner and washing machines- to mention merely a few out of too many-, the energy consumption at household level is bound to increase. In Mauritius, the energy observatory report conducted by the Energy Efficiency Management Office (EEMO) showed a growth in energy consumption of 1.6% from 2016 to 2017, and the highest source of energy was electricity, where again, the consumption increased by 2.1% in the same year. By default, this entails a greater effort on the part of multiple parties namely the Government, the manufacturers as well as the resellers of domestic appliances to bring forward the concept of energy efficiency in this area.

For household appliances manufacturers, there is a need to produce energy efficient models which cater to the growing demand by the consumers for such specificities. We look at the case of international domestic appliances maker, Candy.

Simply-Fi is not only a facilitator in terms of task scheduling, but its effectiveness in detecting wrong practices enables a more efficient use of the appliances, and following this notion, there is less waste of energy. On one side, there is the smart technology accompanying the household appliances; on the other side, we have the appliances themselves which are manufactured in such a way that they consume less energy. Most of Candy household appliances ‘A to A+++’ energy rating class, and they consume on average 1 Watt in stand-by mode. This is a big deal since appliances, especially smart ones, are known to consume up to 15 Watts even when they not in use.

Agricultural Sector
Farmcity
Founded in 2016, the farm was established on an enduring pledge to keep nutritious vegetables open to everyone, regardless of whether it involved working their horticultural unit at a misfortune. The plan of action was purposely constructed with the end goal that instructive project finances their expense of generation, so that their produce can be kept reasonable and the business suitable. Soon, they predict preventive social insurance and nourishment as the possible supplement to Farmcity’s administrations.

Every one of their harvests are developed normally, with no dangerous agrichemicals and they are developed under the TropicBird – their restrictive nursery worked for the tropics, just as in raised bed ranches loaded up with supplement rich soil that is overflowing with life. They endeavour to guarantee that these practices are working in participation with (and of advantage to) individuals and planet, frequently in direct complexity to the polluted and exploitative nature of ordinary farming. Have a look at the video to get an insight of Farmcity’s agricultural practices:

Transport Sector
Having a mean of transport has become a necessity nowadays, and the numbers of vehicles on the roads are increasing every year. In Mauritius, more than 568,879 registered vehicles were reported by the end of June 2019 (Stats Mauritius). Keeping in mind that its population is approximately 1.3 million people. According to the United States Environment Protection Agency, a typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. Considering that Mauritius is a pretty small island, the amount of carbon emissions releasing into our atmosphere is immense.
Many car manufacturers across the world, such as Hyundai, Nissan, Toyota, among many others, have taken actions to make cars that produce less carbon such as hybrid and electric cars.

Hybrid Cars
A hybrid car has a regular engine, an electric motor and a battery and it works by combining a petrol with an electric motor. It is more ecological than other typical cars because it consumes less energy, thus emitting less C02 in the air. According to National Land Transport Authority, there are 7745 Honda hybrid cars and 4333 Toyota hybrid, which was registered from 2009 till September 2019 in Mauritius. BMW was in third place with 260 registered cars.

Electric Cars
Electric cars run at least partly on electricity and it uses electric motor powered by electricity from batteries or a fuel cell (device that converts chemical potential energy into electrical energy). It works when it is plugged into a charge point. Electricity is stored in rechargeable batteries that power electric motor. Those cars are usually more environment friendly than conventional cars in terms of greenhouse gas emissions as they have no exhaust emissions (Lester Lave, Chris Hendrickson and Francis Clay McMichael, 1995). However, the production and distribution of the energy used to charge them determined how clean they are to a country.

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Déforestation: une menace pour l’éco-système

La déforestation est un des facteurs provoquant le changement climatique à Maurice. Selon un article de « Ecology and Society », la déforestation a provoqué d’importantes érosions dans l’ile. Durant les années 1850 la déforestation était courante à cause de la colonisation. Cela a causé la perte de forêts tropicales dans l’ile.

Malheureusement, cette pratique néfaste pour l’écosystème perdure encore à ce jour. Maurice fait maintenant face à la perte massive de forêts de mangroves. Cette perte qui contribue à l’augmentation du niveau de la mer. Des études démontrent que cela pourrait éventuellement être périlleux pour les zones côtières dans un premier abord et finir par inonder l’ile.

Fabiola Monty spécialiste de l’environnement chez «DIS-MOI» nous donne plus de détails dans cette entrevue.

Selon l’International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), il y aurait un besoin urgent d’investir dans des solutions environnementales afin de réduire les risques de désastres naturels dans le futur. En 2016, la déforestation a battu son record mondial avec la perte de 30 millions d’hectares de forêts, qui représente le double du rythme des années précédentes. Cette tendance contribue hélas à perte de la bio-diversité dans le monde.

La spécialiste de l’environnement explique que l’abattage des chauves-souris par exemple, est néfaste pour la biodiversité.

D’après la spécialiste, même s’il existe des tentatives de reboisement, les forêts plantées ne peuvent compenser la perte des forêts naturels. Selon elle, la restauration des forêts devrait être une priorité afin de lutter contre ce problème environnemental.

À noter que selon un article publié par la Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation, plus de 300 plantes endémiques mauriciennes en voie de disparition, viennent d’être rapatriées à Maurice après qu’elles aient été envoyées au Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest, en France, il y a 40 ans pour les sauver de l’extinction.

Sécurité routière: Des mesures pour diminuer le nombre d’accident

2019 a connu de nombreux accidents de routes graves coutant la vie à de nombreuse personne. Maurice compte plus d’une cinquantaine d’accidents de route à ce jour depuis le début de l’année. La situation n’a pas évolué depuis l’an dernier. Les chiffres démontrent que l’année 2018 a été aussi bien meurtrière sur nos routes. On note 141 morts pour l’année 2018. Toutefois, rien que pour les sept premiers mois de l’année dernière, on dénombrait 99 morts, contre 69 morts en 2017. Dans un interview de l’inspecteur Matthur accordé à Télé Plus, ce dernier met en cause les sorties arrosées et l’imprudence des automobilistes.

Cependant des mésures ont été prises récemment afin de réduire cette tendance meurtrière. En décembre 2018, une programme de formation a été mis en place afin de sensibiliser les plus jeunes. Le Ministère du Transport a tenté de former les enseignants des établissements primaires dans un premier abord, les établissements secondaires restent un projet d’avenir. Par ailleurs, en 2018, il y a aussi eu un amendement de La Road Traffic Act incluant ainsi 204 délits. Le montant des amendes a été revu pour des délits tels que l’excès de vitesse. Ceux qui prennent le volant sans permis ou ceux qui prennent la route après que leur permis ait été suspendu devront payer une amende de Rs 50 000 à Rs 100 000.

Plusieurs campagnes de sensibilisation ont été mises en place afin de lutter contre ce problème de société. En janvier de l’année dernière, une campagne sous le thème «Ensam Pa Les Koltar Touy Nou Fami» a été initié par le conseil des ministres dans le cadre de réduire le nombre d’accidents de la route.

Toutefois, aucune de ces mesures de préventions mises en place ne pourra réduire le nombre d’accidents sans qu’elles soient respectées et appliquées par les usagers de la route. Chacun devrait en faire un devoir de respecter et d’appliquer ces mesures de prévoyance. De simples gestes responsables tels que: ne pas prendre d’alcool au volant, ne pas utiliser son téléphone portable au volant ou même respecter la limite de vitesse imposée peut éviter de graves accidents.