Despite Government efforts, Youth Unemployment is still on the rise in Mauritius.

Youth unemployment has become an increasingly pressing issue in many countries around the world, and Mauritius is no exception. Despite the government’s efforts to create job opportunities and support economic growth, the number of unemployed youth is still following an increasing trend during the recent few years. In this article, we will explore the factors contributing to the rising youth unemployment rate in Mauritius and will examine the government’s initiatives to address the issue.


Data extracted from Labour force, Employment and Unemployment Year 2021 report- Statistic Mauritius

From a rate of around at 22.2% in 2011, youth unemployment increased with time, reaching a high of 26.3% in 2015. Estimated at 25.3% in 2014, the National Economic and Social Council report shows there were nearly 20,000 youth who were unemployed during that year. Assisting young people, the Ministry of Finance also introduced two programmes known as The Services to Mauritius Programme and The Youth Employment Programme to solve the issue. In the budget 2016/2017, the National Skills Development Programme (NSDP) was also announced by the Government to address Mauritius youth unemployment where the rate went down to 22.8% in 2019 but gradually increased to 27.7% in 2021.

Why is it on the rise?

A variety of reasons could be contributing to the increased young unemployment rate. The Covid crisis, which occurred in 2020 and 2021, is the first one.

The report for the second quarter of 2021 by Statistics Mauritius, shows that the rate of youth unemployment in the second quarter of 2021 was 32.4%, meaning that it went up by 8.1% from the second quarter of 2020. This shows that the unemployment rate among the youngest working population has been growing for more than two quarters running. Therefore, the key factor is the Covid crisis, which made the labour market dysfunctional and restricted the creation of new jobs for young people.

Besides, it seems that young people are not given the chance to obtain work experience, which makes it harder for them to find employment. Statistics Mauritius’ report shows the country’s total labour force participation rate fell in the second quarter of 2021 compared to the same period in 2020, indicating how, due to discouragement, some young people have given up looking for work.

One further explanation is that the school system does not encourage students to recognize their potential or prepare them for life in the real world. In this situation, career education and counselling are imperative and must be accompanied by pertinent career information to assist students in making the best decisions possible with regard to the courses they take in school, their university studies, or their occupational trainings.

Also, the problem is that each student possesses talent in their own unique way, but the school system frequently ignores this and places greater emphasis on academic achievement.

Last but not least, inadequate career counselling is a factor closely contributing to the skills of recent graduates not matching market gaps. They have a harder time getting jobs because some young people expect to find employment in their exact field of study. However, graduates frequently lack the skills that employers desire, which makes it more difficult to place them in a particular organization.

Program and Government initiatives in Mauritius aimed at addressing Youth Unemployment

There are several program and government initiatives in Mauritius aimed at addressing youth unemployment. Some of these programs are:

The government has invested in myriad programmes as solutions to youth unemployment like – The Youth Employment Program(YEP) which was launched in 2013 to enable young unemployed Mauritians (aged between 16 to 24 years) to initially obtain training or work placements for a year. According to the YEP Secretariat, the number of jobseekers placed in companies as at 28 February 2022 is 24,562 where 68 jobseekers were placed in the public and private sectors, 50 jobseekers were placed in the private sector out of which 32% in “Professional, scientific and technical activities” sector and 14% in “Information and Communications” sector.

The Dual Training Programme (DTP) – The DTP allows unemployed Mauritius citizens to enroll in a diploma or degree program at a higher institution that is accredited by the Tertiary Education Commission or the Mauritius Qualifications. According to the Mauritius Export Association, 38 students have been graduated in October 2018 and all of them have already been offered employment by their respective sponsoring companies.

The National Skills Development Program (NSDP)- It is an initiative of the government of Mauritius aimed at addressing skills gaps and improving the employability of the workforce. According to NSDP statistics, more than 129 enterprises have engaged in this program. Figure 10 gives a quick overview of the status of the programs offered under the NSDP as from of October 2018, 150 projects have been authorized for the training of 6522 unemployed youth. There are approximately 4821 trainees that have begun their course in that year.

Despite the government’s efforts to implement several programs to tackle youth unemployment in Mauritius, the problem is still on the rise. The youth unemployment rate has still rose from the year 2013 to 2021 from 23.2 to 27.7 according to the 2021 report. This highlights the need for a re-evaluation of the existing policies and strategies in place, and for more targeted and innovative measures to be implemented to address the underlying causes of this issue.



The National Economic


Addressing Youth Unemployment

Rising Youth Unemployment 

Unemployment Statistics- Second Quarter 2021

By: Teeshaven Nynan

Amit Dewnath

Reina Dowlet

Correlationship between diabetes and fast food such as McDonalds and KFC in the 5 countries with the highest average of type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors contributing to the high average of diabetics in Mauritius.

The association between eating fast food and an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes is well documented. Fast food is frequently heavy in calories, bad fats, sugar, and refined carbs, all of which can promote the growth of insulin resistance, a disease in which the body’s cells become less receptive to insulin, resulting in high blood sugar levels and eventually type 2 diabetes.

Fast food consumption has also been linked to other non-communicable diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol. Consumption of Fast food and other processed food has been linked to the emergence of various illnesses which can raise the chance of acquiring diabetes.

 It’s crucial to understand that while eating fast food can increase your risk of developing diabetes nevertheless, it is not the sole risk factor. In addition to fast food, genetics, lifestyle decisions, underlying medical disorders and other factors can contribute to the development of diabetes.

Highest average diabetes countries

Illustration of the population and number of MC Donald’s and KFC outlets in the countries with the highest average diabetes.

The shocking numbers of KFC and MC Donald’s in proportion with the number of inhabitants for countries such as Kuwait, Mauritius and Northern Mariana Island clearly shows a positive relationship between diabetes and these fast-food restaurants. 5 Pakistan’s demography helps to better demonstrate how fast food promotes diabetes. In urban areas, where there are more food outlets, there are more diabetics as compared to rural areas. 1

As for French Polynesia, compared to the other countries the proportion of fast food per population is low. Hence, it is the presence of newly introduced processed food that led to an increase of type 2 diabetes. Jennifer Lightle has shown how the importation of processed food due to urbanisation and tourism have contributed to the rising number of non-communicable diseases on the Archipelagos. 2    


With a small number of fast food comes a low number of diabetics. In 2013, the prevalence of diabetes was 4.9% in Lithuania which had a population of about 3 million people. In general, the global chain presence in Lithuania is low-key, with none having more than ten locations.


There are many things that can cause diabetes rates to rise in a nation. Rapid urbanization, obesity, inactivity, age, heredity, poor nutrition, and health access are some of the primary contributing factors.


The country has undergone significant urbanization over the past few decades which is linked to an increased risk of diabetes. This is caused by a variety of elements such as, changes in  lifestyle, dietary, and physical activity patterns that often occur as people relocate from rural to urban regions. The availability of low-cost and high-calorie foods that are frequently heavy in sugar and bad fats is one of the main reasons raising the incidence of diabetes in metropolitan settings. Urbanization frequently results in a more sedentary lifestyle leading to people becoming more dependent on vehicles and public transportations rather than walking or cycling. This may result in weight gain and an increased risk of diabetes.

Interestingly, with urbanization and to re-invigorate physical activity in the community, 6 Health Tracks and 5 outdoor gyms have been set up as in the diagram below.3 The orange stars represent the outdoor gyms and the blue star  represent the health tracks. Clearly, these facilities are not accessible to all citizens as they are not accessible all over the island.

Non communicable diseases

According to the final NCD survey 2021 in Mauritius, NCD’s 4 are high and it may contribute to the development of diabetes in several ways.

Obesity: Obesity is a significant contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is also closely related to NCDs such heart disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. As a result, actions taken to prevent and control obesity can lower the chance of getting diabetes as well as other NCDs.

Hypertension: Hypertension usually referred to as high blood pressure, is a frequent NCD that raises the possibility of becoming diabetic. In addition to harming the organs and blood vessels, hypertension can also result in insulin resistance and a dysfunctional glucose metabolism.

Chronic kidney disease: A non-communicable disease (NCD) that can arise from poorly treated diabetes is chronic kidney disease (CKD). Yet, through affecting insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, CKD can potentially contribute to the onset of diabetes.

Health care services

The prevention and management of diabetes can benefit greatly from health care services. In Mauritius, there are both public and private healthcare providers. Hospitals, health centres, are only a few of the public healthcare facilities run by the Mauritius government that offer different types of  health care facilities to the population. The management and oversight of the public health care system fall under the purview of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life.

Regardless of their financial situation, all citizens and residents of Mauritius are covered by the public health care system. To increase access to health care, the government has adopted a few health care changes in recent years. For instance, the advent of electronic health records, the creation of new health care facilities and infrastructures such as; Diabetes centers, Ayurvedic and Rehabilitation centers.  

Therefore, health care services can offer programs to encourage healthy behaviours, such as; balanced diets, frequent exercise, and weight management. This can aid in delaying or preventing the formation of type 2 diabetes, which is frequently attributed to lifestyle choices.

It has been seen that there is an overall positive relationship between fast food and diabetes in mostly all the countries mentioned. Therefore, while focusing on Mauritius, we have deduced that due to a lack of accessibility to sports facilities, a high amount of other NCDs and urbanization the rate of diabetes is high. That is why, the mere presence of a good health service, is not enough!






5.!AjyGIysYrRUvqyiqukNUUxa9_CUy?e=WMDwJb (excel) (calculations for McDonalds and KFC per population)

Pesticides: Another cause of cancer in Mauritius?

Pesticides are chemicals used in agriculture to control pests and boost crop production. Nonetheless, there have been concerns expressed regarding the potential health impacts of these chemicals, including the possibility of a link between pesticides and cancer. Pesticide research has shown inconsistent findings, with some studies showing that pesticide exposure may raise the incidence of some forms of cancer, while others have found no such association.


According to a study conducted by Pesticide Action Network UK, it has been proven that using pesticides for an extended amount of time can be acutely toxic to human health. The use of pesticides has three different levels of symptoms due to exposure, namely mild poisoning, moderate poisoning and severe poisoning.


The importation rate of pesticides in Mauritius:

According to the latest report from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) on the global trends in the use of pesticides, Mauritius was the biggest user of pesticides (per cropland) in its agriculture in 2018.

Over the past 3 years ( 2018-2021), there has been an increase of 22.3% in the use of pesticides per cropland.

In Mauritius, around 3200 tonnes of pesticides were imported during the period of 2018 and 2021.

From 2019 to 2020, import of fertilisers decreased by 19.1% from 33,354 tonnes to 26,991 tonnes. Import of pesticides increased by 4.3%   from 2,590 tonnes to 2,700 tonnesSource :

Legislation on Pesticides: 

According to the Environment Protection Act 2002, every activity or project that might negatively affect the environment must first undergo an environmental impact assessment (EIA) in order to be approved. By doing so, possible environmental contamination sources may be found and their negative effects on human health can be lessened.

Overall, even though Mauritius’ Environment Protection Act 2002 does not specifically address cancer, it really can help in lowering people’s exposure to pollutants and toxins that are known to promote the onset of the disease. 


What are the regulations that have been put in place?

The government has taken many steps to control pesticide usage in agriculture. They have taken the initiative to introduce the Pesticide Use Act in order to control and monitor pesticide usage in agriculture.

One major change that the government wants to see is a shift towards more sustainable agriculture and a reduction in pesticide use in agriculture. The draft legislation on organic agriculture has been produced, but it still has to be finalised and implemented.


The three most common types of cancer in Mauritius among women and men  are breast cancer, colorectal and ovarian cancers and  prostate, colorectal and lung cancers respectively. These charts below show the amount of people who suffered from the different types of cancer in 2020.

From 2010 to 2020, we can see that the number of cases registered by the National Cancer Registry has increased drastically.  We can see that people nowadays are more at risk of cancer than years ago.


Several studies have found a link between pesticides and cancer, particularly in farmers, agricultural workers, and others who are regularly exposed to these chemicals. Exposure to pesticides can occur through a variety of methods, including inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact. People who deal with pesticides or reside in locations where they are utilised are more likely to be exposed. Children may be more vulnerable owing to their developing bodies and the possibility of exposure through food, water, and contaminated surfaces.


L’Express published an article entitled “Pesticides: que donnons-nous à manger à nos enfants?” back in 2016. Studies conducted on Mauritian cancer patients in one of the best hospitals in Singapore showed a high percentage of pesticides’ residue in their organisms, leading to a probability that exposure to pesticides might indeed lead towards cancer. And according to the article, there were several people who were being treated for cancer due to pesticides. 

136 hospitalisations for pesticide poisoning were recorded in 2017. Employers keep an eye on the health of employees who handle or are exposed to pesticides. Yet, it appears that only individuals who work for governmental organisations are given a regular check-up to track their amount of exposure. As a result, little is known about the total level of pesticide exposure for both the general public and occupations in the private sector. (Ministry of Health and Quality of Life, 2014)

The tobacco effect

Tobacco usage is one of the leading causes of cancer. According to World Bank data, more than 20% of Mauritius residents use tobacco products. Because of the high prevalence of cigarette smoking, many Mauritians are at a higher risk of cancer. The quantity of cigarettes (tobacco) imported by Mauritius in 2019 is depicted in the graph below.


Mauritius Cigarettes; containing tobacco imports by country | 2019 | Data (

Prevalence of current tobacco use (% of adults) – Mauritius | Data (


According to a research by the National Cancer Institute, the consumption of alcohol causes the risks of having several types of cancer. The research has proved that all kinds of alcoholic drinks cause the risks of cancer including wine. All alcoholic drinks contain ethanol which causes cancer. 

According to the WHO, due to the consumption of alcohol, a percentage of nearly 4% of cancer was diagnosed in the world in 2020.

The different types of cancer caused by alcohol are head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, mouth and throat cancer and colorectal cancer.

What are the solutions to be taken?

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in relation to Cancer

IPM is a method of pest control which has been implemented in Mauritius that emphasises the use of a range of techniques, such as biological, cultural, and chemical treatments, to control pest populations in an environmentally conscious manner.The quantity and exposure to pesticides can be decreased by the use of IPM, which lowers the risk of cancer.


Sustainable Agriculture in Mauritius | Nawsheen’s World

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Principles | US EPA

Authorities have been teaching and educating planters on the safe use of pesticides. FAREI is an organisation that offers planters with continuing training and sensitization. The Training Act was created, and it includes the following information: Anybody who cultivates in agriculture or desires to use pesticides must complete training programmes. Everybody who completes the programme will be given a certificate.

As of April 2022, 6450 planters had been sensitised, and 65 training courses for 1715 planters had been organised.

As shown in the above graphs and notes, we can see that cancer is not only caused by pesticides but also by many other things like alcohol consumption, tobacco and lack of exercise and stress. Studies have shown a correlation between the exposure of pesticides and the development of cancer as chemicals trigger cancer in various ways.

To summarise, while the link between pesticides and cancer is still being studied, some evidence shows that exposure to some pesticides may increase the risk of cancer. People can decrease their pesticide exposure by washing vegetables and following pesticide label instructions when using pesticides. As research advances, it is critical to balance the possible advantages and hazards of pesticide use while prioritising public health and safety. The use of pesticides in agriculture is a major contributor to the high cancer rates, and action needs to be taken to reduce their use and protect the health of the population. By implementing sustainable and safer alternatives to pesticides, Mauritius can promote a healthier and more sustainable future for the country.






Immigration in Mauritius: What are the Trends, Impact, Rights and Policies ?

The country’s history is marked by waves of migration that have left a lasting impact on its culture and traditions. Today, immigration continues to play an important role in the country’s development, providing a source of skills and talent that contribute to the growth of the economy. We have also noticed that there are more male immigrants than female. While there are challenges associated with immigration, such as integration and language barriers, these can be addressed through targeted policies and programs. Ultimately, it is important for Mauritius to maintain a balance between ensuring national security and promoting a welcoming environment for immigrants.

Latest Trends and Figures for Immigration in Mauritius.

NOTE:  The statistics for 2020 is provisional.

There were 30,916 foreign employees in the nation in 2019 working in large establishments, according to statistics gathered by Statistics Mauritius, with 24,674 men and 6,242 women making up the majority. These people were engaged in a range of industries, including construction, trade, and manufacture.

According to the General Assembly Resolution A/RES/74/148 on the Protection of Migrants, employees, or more than half of the migrant Labour, were from Bangladesh.

The latest data from Statistics Mauritius reveals a persistent gender gap among foreign workers in the country. In 2021, there were 23,991 male immigrant workers compared to 6,053 females. This trend remains consistent year after year, with males making up more than 75% of the total population of foreign workers.

The majority of these immigrant workers are employed in the construction and manufacturing industries, comprising more than half of the foreign workforce.

Growth of foreign population in Mauritius.

According to research, there is an increase in the foreign population in Mauritius overall through the year 2020. Based on calculations, it has been estimated that at least 3.6% of the Mauritian population are immigrants.

These statistics highlight the important contribution that foreign labour makes to Mauritius’ economy as well as the persisting gender imbalance in this workforce. They also call into question the working conditions and rights provided to these employees, especially in light of ongoing initiatives to increase labour standards and guarantee the security and well-being of all employees in the nation.

Migrants and the Mauritian economy

Immigrants, commonly known as expats cause significant impact to the Mauritian economy. In Mauritius, human capital plays a crucial role in its being. Migration is a feature of social and economic life of Mauritius, whereby the profiles of migrant populations vary considerably. Migration impact us in mainly three areas namely the labour market, the public purse and the economic linkage.

The migrants’ contribution to Mauritius’ labour market

Migrant workers to Mauritius make important contributions to the labour market in both high- and low-skilled occupations Over the past ten years, immigrants represented 17% of the increase in the workforce of the country. The workforce of Mauritius equals to 567,600 and counting, whereby there is 342,000 male and 225,600 females. The 17% increase equals to more than 96,492 immigrants nearing 100,000 immigrants in the country.

Education level

The education status of immigrants to Mauritius varies considerably. Those entering the white-collar force, on average over a fourth, are tertiary educated. A much higher proportion, however, has not completed their upper-secondary education. This is because of sector and organisational needs of the economy, the current policy, and the impact on cost of goods sold. The bulk of the workforce is employed in textiles, construction, fish processing, and retail sectors. In all these areas, immigrants are filling labour needs by taking up jobs regarded by domestic workers as unattractive or lacking career prospects.

Do migrants contribute to the public purse ?

When coming to taxes and social contributions, migrants give more than they receive in individual benefits. Immigrants provide an estimated net benefit of 1% of GDP ( Gross Domestic Profit) to the public purse. Immigrants are thus neither a burden to the public purse nor are they the remedy for addressing fiscal challenges. They do contribute to some extent to the financing of public infrastructure. Furthermore, Mauritius do not discriminate between the expats and the local, in tax liability.

How are they linked to the economy ?

Lower rung immigrants in Mauritius have a better fiscal position (the difference between their contributions and the benefits they receive), than some Mauritians. There are immigrants that have a less favourable fiscal position because of the fact that they often have lower wages compared to Mauritians.  Happily, the minimum wage regulation applies to expats as well, thus creating a level playing field at the entry level. Employment is the single most important determinant of migrants’ net fiscal contribution which equals to approximately 0.5% of GDP. Most immigrants come to find work and to improve their lives and those of their families. Migration has a large demographic impact, where it is increasing the size of the population and changing the age pyramid of Mauritius. Migrants bring along skills and abilities, thus supplementing the stock of human capital of the host country.

Migrant’s right

Just like nationals, migrants too have certain rights to protect them in Mauritius. Migrants with a valid residence permit may access free public health-care services under the same conditions as nationals.

Access to COVID-19 health care services

COVID-19-related health services are accessible to all migrants under the same conditions as nationals. The national vaccination programme began on 26 January 2021, with front-line workers in the health-care, retail, hospitality and transportation sectors. Individuals with comorbidities were also given priority access to the vaccines. In March 2021, the Government of Mauritius expanded its COVID-19 vaccination programme to include travellers, diplomats and their families, and non-citizens with valid work or residence permits and premium travel visas as well.

Workers’ rights act

Also, all workers, including migrants, are protected against discrimination by the Workers’ Rights Act. Also, to counter exploitation of the migrant worker, CTSP, IndustriALL and Anti-Slavery International set up the Migrant Resource Centre (MRC) in 2018 to raise awareness on the violation of migrant workers’ human and workers’ rights which are protected by the Mauritian laws. All workers, including migrants, are protected against discrimination by the Workers’ Rights Act (2019), which stipulates that “an agreement shall not be terminated by an employer by reason of a worker’s race, colour, caste, national extraction, social origin, place of his origin, age, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, sex, sexual orientation, gender, HIV status, impairment, marital status or family responsibilities”.

Government’s approach to migrants

What initiatives were taken for migrants ?

To not only protect migrants but to also encourage migrants to come to Mauritius, the Government of Mauritius has taken many initiatives. For example, since 2018, the Government has reformed some immigration policies to facilitate immigration procedures for foreign nationals wishing to reside or work and live in Mauritius.

Online platform for permit application

 The Economic Development Board (EDB) launched the National Electronic Licensing System (NELS) in 2018 to facilitate the occupation permit application process, reduce wait time and modernize the issuance of registration certificates, as well as expedite the payment of fees. This interactive and user-friendly platform allows online submission and processing of occupation permits for foreign nationals.

Premium visa introduced

Also, in 2020, the Government introduced the Premium Visa, which is valid for a period of one year and renewable, to encourage foreign nationals to stay as tourists, retirees or professionals with their family members, and conduct their business or work activities remotely from Mauritius. Applicants can submit online applications through the National Electronic Licensing System to Passport and Immigration Office (PIO).

 Subsidies provided by the government

Moreover, the Government Wage Assistance Scheme (GWAS) provided wage subsidies to employers for employees earning a basic monthly wage of up to MUR 50,000, with a maximum benefit of MUR 12,500 per employee. The Government extended this subsidy to all economic sectors and targeted both nationals and migrant workers in 2020.

Immigration to Mauritius has had a significant role in the growth and development of the nation. The nation has a long history of embracing immigrants and is now a well-liked choice for those searching for a new place to call home.


Chandan Kumar Manogee

Deevyasha Runglall

Malikesha Seeruthun

Higher qualifications, lower pay: The unexplained gender wage gap.

General belief is that gender inequality persists even in terms of employment. However, how truthful is this statement? An analysis of the unemployment rate and employment rate of both genders was done from year 2018 to 2021. The main findings of this research showed that the gap between gendered unemployment is not extremely huge. However, men still have the upper hand in terms of employment. This does not correlate with the educational achievement of both genders as women have more educational qualifications. Moreover, over the 4 years that have been analysed, it has been observed that women suffer the most from the wage gap between the two genders. To get a more detailed analysis, we broke down the three variables that were analysed.

What can be said of the rate of gendered unemployment from 2018 to 2021

Data collected from Labour Force, Employment & Unemployment – Year 2018
Year 2019, Year 2020 &Year 2021

General Observations:
If we look at the data provided by Statistics Mauritius from the last 4 years, the main observation that was made was that men are definitely more employed than women. They dominated the charts for all the four years as the rate of employed men in 2018 was 352,800 and 293,000 in 2021 (compared to women which was 231,000 and 191,400 respectively).

However, if we look at the charts, it can be said that there is not a significant difference between the unemployment rates for 2020 and 2021 as there was pretty much the same amount of men and women who were unemployed. What was even more unexpected is that the difference between gender unemployment was larger before the emergence of the Covid-19. Following the global pandemic, the unemployment rates rose for both genders. The last observation made was that over the years, there have been a slight decrease of employment for both genders.

Data according to the Educational Attainment of Unemployed people

Data collected from Gender Stats for the Year 2018 & 2019

More data has been analyzed regarding the educational attainment of both sexes over a 4-year period (2018 to 2021).

From 2018 to 2019, unemployed males had a higher CPE passing rate than females. The SC & HSC passed rate, however, was higher for unemployed females than for males, with a passing rate of 55.2% as opposed to 28.6%. Regarding the attainment of tertiary education by both sexes between 2018 and 2019, we can see that even though there was a decline for both sexes, more unemployed women than men entered the tertiary sector—2,900 men versus 6,400 women. 

Data collected from Gender Stats for the Year 2020 & 2021

Similarly, compared to men, unemployed women passed more often from 2019 to 2020 at all levels. Despite a significant increase in the number of men pursuing a SC&HSC since 2019, from 10,500 to 16,600 in 2020, women still outperformed men in terms of passing rates and obtaining their SC&HSC, with 7,100 of them succeeding compared to 6,700 men. Thus, the overall educational attainment for unemployed men  was 1.9% and for unemployed women it was 2.1% respectively. As for the year of 2021, only 6,600 females passed their SC& HSC against 4,900 males. This is  due to the fact that there has been a decrease in the educational attainment by both unemployed males and females from 2020 to 2021.

General Observations:
Although from the last three years taken into consideration above (2018,2019&2020), unemployed females attending the tertiary level of education had always been higher than unemployed males by a significant amount, in 2021 it turned out to be slightly more male than female, with 5,100 males against 5,000 females. Despite this slight increase, women who are unemployed continue to have higher educational attainment and passing rates than men.

As can be seen from the data presented thus far, women who are unemployed in Mauritius tend to have higher educational attainment than men at all educational levels (except for tertiary education in 2021). Nevertheless, despite having more credentials, they still have a higher unemployment rate than men.

Wage gap and gender: Who suffers the most?

Through an analysis of the data from year 2018 to 2021, it was found that women are the ones who suffer the most from the gender wage gap and it can especially be seen at the level of higher pay jobs. If we look at the data from 2018, it can be seen that female managers nearly suffers from a rs10,000 wage gap and the same can be said for female service and sales workers. This inequality is clearly unexplained. For year 2018, there was an average wage gap of rs5,800.

A table representing average income of employees by occupational group in 2018:

Data collected from Gender Stats for the Year 2018 & 2019

For both year 2018 and 2019, women earned less than men despite having more educational achievement for both year.In 2019, according to the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) of the World Economic Forum, Mauritius was ranked 115 out of 153 countries worldwide compared to 109 in 2018. From 2018 to 2019, we can witness an increase in the average monthly income of both genders, where for women, it increased from Rs 18, 600 to Rs 19, 100 and for men, it increased from Rs 24, 400 to Rs 25, 100. Clearly, men still earned more than women from 2018 to 2019 which indicates the obvious wage gap between men and women in the Labour force. 

According to the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) of the World Economic Forum, Mauritius was ranked 115 out of 153 countries worldwide in 2020. Women earn an average monthly income (US$1,131) appreciably lower than that enjoyed by men (US$1,486) (Statistics Mauritius, 2020b). This clearly shows that Women still earned less than men from 2019 to 2020.  Only 11.9% of working women were heads of business compared to 18.6% among men. Unemployed women are generally more qualified than their male counterparts. Women are largely under-represented in decision making at higher spheres of society: the number of female ministers was only 3 out of 24. The proportion of women in the most senior positions in government services (Senior Chief Executive, Permanent Secretary, Deputy Permanent Secretary, Director, Manager, Judge and Magistrate) was 39.7%.

Women were paid 22.1% less on average than men in 2021, after controlling for race and ethnicity, education, age, and geographic division. By 2021, women’s educational attainment had surpassed men’s educational attainment. In 2021, 37.4% of men and 43.8% of women had at least a college degree. Unfortunately, even with these advances in educational attainment, women still face a stark pay gap. Women with advanced degrees are paid less, on average, than men with bachelor’s degrees.

There is no silver bullet to solving pay equity, but rather a menu of policy options that can close the gender pay gap. More focused policies with clear action plans, for instance, those that will promote the inclusion of women in high‐level positions, will reduce the gender wage gap. Encouraging women to participate in the knowledge‐based, high‐income economy of Mauritius by overcoming the skills mismatch that pervades in sectors with fastest growth is a potential strategy for improving gender wage parity

Additional data gathered from Gender Stats for the Year 2020 & 2021

General Observations:
After analysis, it has been observed that wage gap is very much present within Mauritian labour force. Despite having more qualifications, most women still earn less than men. It is to be noted that average pay for women with advanced degrees is lower than for males with bachelor’s degrees. What can be noted is that the wage gap can be seen at different levels of an organisation. As mentioned earlier, there is nearly a rs10k difference between the salaries of male managers and female managers which is quite concerning. Gender inequality at the workplace lies within the wage gap.


Hence, the correlation between the 3 variables; Unemployment, Educational Attainment & Wage Gap, has quite an extent of complexity to understand as for instance, women are not necessarily unemployed because they are less educated. As mentioned above women are more educated than men. Furthermore,  there is still not much clarification when it comes to the wage gap and as to why women are the ones who earn less.

Therefore, this raises the question of whether women suffer from this discrimination because of their gender. Common beliefs are that women are encouraged to become housewives, women are said to have less physical capacities than men, men are more insecure with women having a higher wage and so on.

However, much more extensive data on disaggregated by sex, race and ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, disability status, and more factors—are needed to understand precisely where pay disparities/wage gaps exist and where efforts must be targeted.

Produced by:

Marie Christophe Fabien Huët

Reema Rambaccus
Sudarshinee Raumessur

Under the supervision of – Mrs Christina Chan-Meetoo
Module – Data Sourcing, Analysis and Visualisation

BSc (Hons)Communication Studies (Business/Journalism) – Year 2
University of Mauritius 

Moins d’enfants, qu’en est-il pour la République de Maurice?

La République de Maurice a connu des changements démographiques au fil des années. Cet article se concentre sur le déclin de la population de la République de Maurice et une analyse sur les données de trois causes affectant la croissance démographique. Puis, les effets d’une population décroissante ont été élaborés pour mieux comprendre les enjeux que cela représentera à l’avenir pour la République de Maurice.

La décroissance de la population de la République de Maurice a été analysée à partir du graphique ci-dessous. Nous pouvons également noter qu’il y a eu une augmentation de la population de décembre 2019 à décembre 2020. Néanmoins, l’accent est mis sur le fait qu’après 2020, la tendance démographique a continué à baisser.

Un indicateur qui pourrait être lié à la diminution de la population de la République de Maurice (à l’exclusion d’Agalega), est la scolarisation à l’école pré-primaire. L’hypothèse qui sera testée ici est la suivante :

“Une diminution de la population entraînera une diminution des inscriptions au niveau pré-primaire.”

Les données ont été extraites de Statistics Mauritius pour faire le graphique ci-dessous.

Initialement, à partir de ce graphique, il y a eu une diminution des inscriptions dans les écoles pré-primaires de 2017 à 2019, puis il y a eu une augmentation en 2020. Par la suite, il y a eu une diminution de 2020 à 2021.

Après avoir comparé ces deux graphiques (graphique de population et graphique de scolarisation), nous pouvons noter que le pic croissant et le pic décroissant sont corrélés respectivement aux années 2020 et 2021. Cette hypothèse est donc vraie puisqu’une augmentation de la population en 2020 a entraîné une augmentation du taux de scolarisation préscolaire et une diminution de la population en 2021 a entraîné une baisse du taux de scolarisation préscolaire.

Alors, quelles pourraient être les causes d’une diminution de la population ? Dans cet article, nous développerons trois aspects : le taux de naissance, le taux de mortalité et le vieillissement de la population.

Les causes

Taux de naissance :

D’après la série démographique historique de Statistics Mauritius, il a été rapporté que le taux de naissance enregistré pour la République de Maurice (à l’exclusion de Saint Brandon et d’Agalega) était de 24 967 en 1981 à 12 982 en 2021. Dans le tableau ci-dessous, nous pouvons voir qu’il y avait une augmentation du taux de naissance en 2020 qui est corrélée à l’augmentation de la population en 2020 et la diminution du taux de naissance est corrélée à la diminution de la population. Il est à noter que les données surlignées en rouge étaient le taux de naissance prévu pour la fin de 2022 et qu’en raison de la tendance à la baisse, une diminution du taux de naissance était attendue.

Sans aucun doute, une diminution du taux de naissance entraînera automatiquement une diminution de la population. L’époque où les familles faisaient beaucoup d’enfants et où les frères et sœurs se partageaient tout est belle et bien “has been” ! Dans la démographique actuelle de Maurice, la grande majorité de famille n’est composée de pas plus de 2 enfants ! Et quand nous posons la question aux jeunes adultes ; la réponse est catégorique, c’est soit : “non, je ne veux pas d’enfant ou alors un ou deux mais pas plus !”

De plus, plusieurs facteurs ont conduit à une baisse du taux de naissance, compte tenu des changements de niveau de vie, du changement de mentalité et des changements du coût de la vie.

Le déclin du taux de naissance est une situation critique et pour encourager les jeunes couples à avoir plus de 2 ou 3 bébés, le ministre des Finances a annoncé le Baby Bonus Scheme Voucher dans le budget 2022/2023. Ce schème consiste à donner Rs 1000 aux parents des bébés nés depuis le 1ᵉʳ juillet 2022.

Taux de mortalité

De même, la croissance démographique de la population est également liée au taux de mortalité. En fait, le taux de natalité et le taux de mortalité peuvent être corrélés lors de l’analyse de la population. En général, si le taux de natalité augmente et que le taux de mortalité diminue ou reste le même, il y aura une croissance de la population. Au contraire, si le taux de natalité diminue et que le taux de mortalité augmente, il y aura une diminution de la population.

Analysons cela pour la période 2019 à 2022. Le graphique du taux de natalité mentionné précédemment sera comparé au graphique du taux de mortalité.

Encore une fois, nous pouvons remarquer sur le graphique du taux de mortalité qu’il y a eu une diminution du nombre de décès de 2019 à 2020. Ces données pourraient également expliquer le pic élevé de croissance démographique en 2020. Néanmoins, le taux de mortalité a continué d’augmenter après 2020 et on s’attendait à ce qu’il y ait 13 480 décès d’ici la fin de 2022.

En comparant les deux graphiques, nous pouvons déduire qu’une diminution du taux de natalité et une augmentation du taux de mortalité entraîneraient une diminution de la population. Les raisons d’une telle augmentation pourraient être dues au covid-19 ou à une mauvaise hygiène de vie, entre autres. Ainsi, la population de la République de Maurice connaît bel et bien un changement démographique compte tenu de ces deux facteurs.

Population vieillissante

D’après un article de DéfiMedia, il a été rapporté qu’en cinq ans, le nombre de Mauriciens âgés de 60 ans et plus a augmenté de 19% alors que le taux de natalité du pays ne cessait de baisser. Le vieillissement implique qu’il y a plus de personnes âgées que de jeunes. Par ailleurs, la population âgée de 60 ans représentait 5,9 % en 1972 contre 17,4 % en 2019. Indéniablement, la population âgée est en augmentation.

Pourquoi la population vieillit-elle ?

Citant Statistics Mauritius : « Le processus de vieillissement peut s’expliquer par une longévité accrue et des niveaux de fertilité plus faibles. Le nombre de naissances pour 1 000 habitants a diminué de 75 % au cours des 60 dernières années. Les faibles niveaux de fécondité ont entraîné une diminution de la part des jeunes dans la population totale. »

À l’appui de cela, le taux de fécondité général (G.F.R) de la République de Maurice (hors Agalega et Saint Brandon) a diminué de 55,51 en 2005 à 40,78 en 2021. (Remarque : G.F.R = le nombre de naissances dans une année divisé par le nombre de femmes âgées de 15 à 44 ans, fois 1000). Considérant aussi l’indice de fécondité (ISF) – “taux de fécondité”, il mesure le nombre moyen d’enfants par femme. Le taux de fécondité moyen mondial est aujourd’hui autour de 2,3 enfants par femme. Selon Statistics Mauritius le taux de fécondité a diminué de 2.16 en 1984 à 1.41 en 2021.

Par conséquent, le vieillissement est un autre facteur à l’origine des changements démographiques.

Les effets

Avec toutes ces données apparentes et inquiétantes, quel est l’avenir de la République de Maurice ? Quels sont les effets auxquels nous devons nous attendre ?

D’après un article du DéfiMedia, premièrement, il y a les effets économiques. Lorsqu’il y a moins de personnes, les entreprises peuvent être amenées à réduire leur production ou à fermer leurs portes. Cela peut entraîner des niveaux de chômage plus élevés et une diminution de la croissance économique. Additionnellement, vu que le nombre de vieux augmente, le taux de dépendance aussi. Que ce soit le transport gratuit, les services de santé gratuits ou la pension de vieillesse offerts par le gouvernement, c’est la population travailleuse qui se retrouve à devoir payer la dette publique qui prend l’ascenseur.

Deuxièmement, les effets sociaux. L’impact d’une population sur une société peut être profond, en particulier lorsque le nombre de jeunes diminue et que les tendances au vieillissement se poursuivent. Cela peut entraîner l’isolement social, un manque de diversité culturelle et des pénuries de travailleurs qualifiés dans divers domaines.

Il y a aussi les effets politiques. Une population en déclin peut entraîner des conséquences politiques importantes, en particulier dans les pays dont la population vieillit. La population plus âgée peut avoir des priorités et des intérêts politiques différents de ceux de la jeune génération, ce qui entraîne des changements dans le pouvoir et les priorités politiques.

Si le taux de naissance continue à chuter et que le taux de vieillissement continue à augmenter, l’avenir s’annonce sombre pour la République de Maurice !


Do all drop-outs wind up being failures?

Throughout the years, Mauritius has observed a substantial decrease in the number of students who sat for national exams, ranging from CPE to the SC and HSC. Various alternatives have been implemented to cater to students who were not able to pursue the traditional school curriculums. The MITD (Mauritius Institute of Technology and Design) and Polytechnics Mauritius, for instance, were created to help those students who left the traditional system, to equip them with skills and knowledge that would allow them to be functional and productive members of society. The statistics demonstrate that the MITD and Polytechnics Mauritius, through 2017 to 2022 were able to cater for approximately 50.44% of the students who left schools.

The HSC results just came out, and students around the island celebrated an astonishing 92.25% pass rate. For SC, however, the celebration was not all that grand with a 78.49%. While it is evident that the majority of the students who sat for the exams passed, not much light is shed on the numbers that failed. They remain solely as statistics in the shadows. Just how many students could not keep up with the traditional school model?

Figure 1 : Data collected from MES showing the number of students who sat for CPE,SC and HSC

*(It is important to bear in mind that the numbers might not perfectly reflect the reality of the issue due to the fact that some students might have resat some exams or even skipped some grades. These instances or scenarios, however, might not influence the statistics substantially as the numbers remain quite small.)

CohortsDecrease in number of studentsProportion (decrease/CPE)
Table 1: Proportion decrease per cohort from CPE, SC to HSC

Total decrease from 2012-202232,178
Table 2: The total decrease in the number of students from 2012 to 2022

*(For the 2013-2021 and 2014-2022 batches, it can be noted that the proportion looks more alarming. But with the COVID-19 virus that lasted for almost 2 years, the accentuated decrease could be associated to several reasons. For the 2013-2021 batch, it could that some of them decided to wait a year, or even use their mock results to attend universities abroad or simply drop out. As for the 2014-2022 batch, it could be that some sat for private examinations the previous year so as to finish early, or maybe some repeated some classes, or perhaps a portion even dropped out)

The statistics of the 3 cohorts who sat for the CPE, SC, and HSC exams in 3 different years were extracted and treated from the MES statistics. The bar chart shows that the number of students sitting for exams just keeps dropping. From 18,000 to 6,000 or 5,000. For each cohort, in the span of 10 years, the number of students who figured in the traditional educational system was more than halved. Just where exactly do these students go?

One possible explanation could be that they repeated some classes, at least some of them did. Maybe they immigrated or perhaps they, simply, dropped out. We decided to explore how effective the alternatives the Government has put into place were. To what extent do these vocational institutions such as the MITD and Polytechnic cater to those students who could no longer pursue the traditional school curriculum?

It was found that from 2017 to 2020 the MITD catered for 15,861 students.

YearNumber of students
Table 3: Number of individuals who enrolled into the MITD from 2017 to 2022

The first batch of Polytechnics Mauritius graduates in 2022 counted 371 students and coupled with the MITD statistics, from the year 2012 to 2022, it can seen that they catered for 16, 232 students for the 32,178 decrease in the number of students along the years.

So, for those who dropped out, how effectively did the vocational schools founded around the island effectively cater for them?

Students in vocational schools from 2017-202016, 232
Decrease in the number of students in traditional school curriculum through the years of 2012-202232,178
Table 4: Number of individuals who figured in the vocational institutions- MITD and Polytechnics Mauritius

Students that were neither in the traditional school system nor in the vocational institutions15,946
Table 5: Number of students who did not figure in traditional school curriculums or vocational institutions

It is true that being able to recruit and form half of drop-out students is astounding, giving more than 16,000 individuals the opportunity to shape their future is truly an extraordinary deed. But it is still unclear what the other half of those students become. Do they immigrate? Do they opt for menial jobs that involve tiring work, generally poorly paid and given low social status? Or do they start their own business? It is worrying that a country that invests so much in the education sector (Rs 18.8 billion for the 2023 budget) and prides itself so much in its progress has around 15,946 individuals out there, trying to survive off of their own skills and knowledge. Should there not be a documentation of those individuals who have not been able to acquire their School Certificates or Higher School Certificates ?


By: Aaliyah Ganga, Jade Pydiah & Adrien Pompon

Relative Poverty(2017) : Is government’s concern beneficial?

A survey was carried in 2017 on the republic of Mauritius and around 36,500 households comprising of 131,300 were in relative poverty based on several factors  like size of household, age group, type of household, activity status, and educational attainment, lack of health care among women. If the Mauritian Government came up with the Marshall plan and other programmes in 2017, then is it true that it has eradicated Relative poverty or is it still prevalent due to other factors like the Covid-19?

It was concluded that the size of household of five or more persons were more exposed to poverty than others. This was due to less people working and high expenditures in the household. For example, in 2017, an average monthly income for a poor household was Rs 13,100 while the expenditure costs Rs 10,200 – therefore you could probably guess that no developments and savings can be made.

Moreover age group being most in poverty, are children and young adults aged between 16-24 years old while elders are the least one being considered in poverty. Why so? Children leave school at a younger age and find it difficult to get a job which leads to unemployment while the elderly has a source of income either through retired or old pensions. For example; in the first quarter of 2017, youth unemployed aged 16 to 24 years numbered 22,200 (9700 males and 12,500 females) , while in the educational realm, 8% had not reached Certificate of Primary Education level or equivalent and 35 % did not have Cambridge School Certificate.

Poverty analysis in 2017 – statistics Mauritius

Youngsters more exposed to poverty than elders

It is obvious that unemployed people will experience poverty due to a lack of financial stability. Those persons without a job or looking to do one will have a lower standard of living than those people who are employed. Therefore there has been a fluctuation in the poverty rate by status in 2017. We noted an increase in the poverty line for unemployed people, while for the retired one, a decrease of 4.3% was noted. For pensioners, poverty has fallen because of an increase in pensioners’ benefits, the growth of private pension incomes, and rising pensioner employment. Since the Mauritian population is of an ageing one, the government spends 50.9% of its social welfare fund for the elderly only.

The type of household being prone to poverty is the single parent family with dependent children (19.2 %) in 2017. This is due to the extra costs of children. It can be stipulated that Lone parents are more likely to experience poverty than those in a couple. Adding to this point, females are more likely to be affected by poverty with a percentage of 11.1% against 9.7% of males. Females are often considered vulnerable to this phenomenon as they experience, lower pay jobs, higher rates of unemployment and economic inactivity, likelihood of being a single parent. Moreover they also experience lack of health care and higher death rate- Diabetes Mellitus and Heart disease.

Marshall Plan 2017

However, Government’s initiatives in the Marshall Plan of 2017 is the biggest concern! Going through it will probably refresh the readers about the developments that the government has done to eradicate some of the poverty issues mentioned above. With the 2017 Marshall plan and other programmes, , a new scheme was introduced on 1st December 2016  under which every adult on the Social Register of Mauritius (SRM) was entitled to a monthly subsistence allowance based on a minimum threshold of Rs 2 720 with a maximum threshold of Rs 9 520 for a family of two adults and three children. In partnerships with UNDP, IMF, World Bank etc , the Government is distributing social security benefits  not only old age pension to ensure proper standard living for elderly people aged 60 years but also introducing  widows’ pension, invalid pensions, social aid for poor households etc. 

With the Free education at primary, secondary , the government has provided with daily bread ‘pain maison’ in primary schools; distribution of food in selected schools under Zone Education Prioritaire programmes; Industrial and vocational training for children having not passed the final stage of primary education; distribution of computers in schools. Consequently, in order to encourage students from poor families to achieve higher levels of education, Government have given them a cash award as follows: Rs 15 000 for successfully completing the grade 9 level under the nine-year schooling; Rs 25 000 for successfully completing the School Certificate level or equivalent vocational certificate;and Rs 35 000 for those successfully completing the Higher School Certificate or equivalent technical qualification.

As regards, the crèche voucher scheme for poor families, the monthly grant has increased from Rs 1 500 to Rs 2 000 per child, to allow these children to get a good start in life. The government has  also provided with  Free health services in government hospital and area health centers; health services through ‘Caravane de Santé’ in different regions of the country; school and domiciliary visit of health personnel; Sensitization campaign on HIV in schools and workplaces and amongst many other developments.

If today Marshall Programme has worked, where is Relative Poverty at?

With the recent covid-19 and the rise of inflation, the question that triggers the mind of readers is whether poverty rate has increased or remain stagnant? According to World Bank Organization, the immediate negative consequences of covid-19 range from lack of access of food, health and education, to destruction of jobs, loss of income. Therefore Statistics Mauritius being financed by World Bank has carried out a household surveys to monitor socioeconomic effects of the pandemic on Mauritian Households from May through July 2020. Number of households forming part of the survey was 924,907 and 803 respectively. About 1 in 3 households have endure income losses after the lifting of the lockdown. In May, about 36% of households reported that their income level had declined since the start of the lockdown. The share of income for the households has gone down. Yet, in July for almost one in three households, income declined relative to June. Does this mean that the Mauritian population became relatively poor that time and that the poverty rate became probably worse than 2017?

Therefore based on the statistics compared with 2012 to 2017, there has been a decrease of 5.9% in relative poverty compared to 2012 and the percentage rate of poverty in 2017 has therefore become 13.50%- hence, it is questionable whether the Marshall Program has been working especially with an upcoming covid-19 Pandemic.

Well, it is for the government to respond about it in  the awaiting poverty analysis of 2023 that will explains whether the statistics remain much or less the same compared to 2017. If the Marshall Plan has worked and the covid-19 has surged over the country three years after , it is evident that it will relatively impact on household’s income and the whole population will somehow face relative poverty at no cost but to some extent those poor income household will face it more than those in the middle class income household.,-says-PM-Jugnauth.aspx

By: Rushaa, Cloe, Poumedee, Maanshika. §

UoM FSSH Journalism students win the top two prizes in the student category for the African Fact-Checking Awards 2022

Our students have won the top two prizes in the student journalist category at the African Fact-Checking Award 2022

Students Kokeelavani and Elizabeth received the trophies during a gala night at the Africa Facts Summit in Nairobi yesterday.

Vidyasharita Bumma, Kokeelavani Mauree and Sachita Gobin won the top prize (picture from AfricaCheck)

Elizabeth Henri-Héloïse is the runner-up  (picture from AfricaCheck)

Elizabeth and Kokeelavani on stage together with winners in the professional categories (picture from AfricaCheck)

The trophies received by the students (picture from Kokeelavani Mauree)

UoM FSSH students selected as finalists for the African Fact-Checking Awards 2022

Happy to announce that some of my students are finalists in the African Fact-Checking Awards 2022! Elizabeth Henri-Héloïse and Kokeelavani Mauree will travel to Nairobi in Kenya tomorrow to attend the African Fact-checking Network Summit and the awards ceremony (all costs covered by Africa Check).

From left to right:
Kokeelavani Mauree (student), Christina Chan-Meetoo (Senior Lecturer), Elizabeth Henri-Héloïse (student)

The two students are from the BSc (Hons) Communication Studies with specialisation in Journalism Yr 3 cohort. Elizabeth made an individual submission whereas Kokeelavani worked in a team of three with Vidya and Sacheeta. As Africa Check could only cover the travel expenses for one student, Kokeelavani was chosen by her team as their representative in the finals.

Their fact-checking articles were produced for the Semester 2 part of the module “Investigative and Data-Driven Journalism”, which I taught. The articles are as follows:

They will likely receive a prize as either winner or runner-up in the competition! I can only wish them good luck in the finals!